Lecithin - Clinical Trials
|I Product Info||I Ingredients
||I Recommended Use
||I Clinical Trials
||I Research Brief
Indication: asthenia, nervous excitability, high blood cholesterol level, liver and gall-bladder disorders, liver overload (intoxications, antibiotic therapy, excessive alcohol consumption and smoking).
Actions: helps to restore nervous cell function, helps myelin fiber regeneration, intensifies metabolism in the brain cells, improves vitamin A, D, Е and К absorption, helps decrease cholesterol level, contains phospholipid complex, prevention of gallstone formation, increases physical endurance.
Ingredients (per one capsule):
Soy lecithin – 520.0 mg
Low USA domestic & international
Lecithin - Clinical Trials:
Dietary soy lecithin supplementation decreases hyperlipidemia and influences lipid metabolism. Although this product is used by diabetic patients, there are no data about the effect of soy lecithin supplementation on the immune system. The addition of phosphatidylcholine, the main component of lecithin, to a culture of lymphocytes has been reported to alter their function. If phosphatidylcholine changes lymphocyte functions in vitro as previously shown, then it could also affect immune cells in vivo. In the present study, the effect of dietary soy lecithin on macrophage phagocytic capacity and on lymphocyte number in response to concanavalin A (ConA) stimulation was investigated in non-diabetic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Supplementation was carried out daily with 2 g kg(-1) b.w. lecithin during 7 days. After that, blood was drawn from fasting rats and peritoneal macrophages and mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes were collected to determine the phospholipid content. Plasma triacylglycerol (TAG), total and HDL cholesterol and glucose levels were also determined. Lymphocytes were stimulated by ConA. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) dye reduction method and flow cytometry were employed to evaluate lymphocyte metabolism and cell number, respectively. Soy lecithin supplementation significantly increased both macrophage phagocytic capacity (+29%) in non-diabetic rats and the lymphocyte number in diabetic rats (+92%). It is unlikely that plasma lipid levels indirectly affect immune cells, since plasma cholesterol, TAG, or phospholipid content was not modified by lecithin supplementation. In conclusion, lymphocyte and macrophage function were altered by lecithin supplementation, indicating an immunomodulatory effect of phosphatidylcholine. (1)
The current study was designed to investigate the hypocholesterolemic and anti-atherogenic properties of soy lecithin beyond its fatty acid content. In experiment 1, 18 cynomolgus monkeys were divided into three groups of six and fed diets which approximated either the average American diet (AAD), the American Heart Association (AHA) Step I diet, or a modified AHA (mAHA) Step I diet containing 3.4% soy lecithin for 8 weeks. Plasma samples were collected from food-deprived monkeys and analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), very low- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) concentrations. Group comparisons revealed that monkeys fed the mAHA Step 1 diet had significantly lower plasma TC (-46%) and non-HDL-C (-55%) levels compared to the AAD diet, whereas monkeys fed the AHA Step 1 diet had lesser reductions in plasma TC (-21%) and non-HDL-C (-18%) levels. The monkeys fed the mAHA Step I diet had significantly lower plasma TC (-32%) and non-HDL-C (-45%) compared to the monkeys fed the AHA step diet. Also, only the mAHA Step I diet significantly reduced pre-treatment plasma TC and non-HDL-C levels by - 39 and -51% respectively with no significant effect on plasma HDL-C or TG levels. In experiment 2, 45 hamsters were divided into three groups of 15 and fed the following three modified non-purified diets for 8 weeks: a hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) containing 10%, coconut oil and 0.05%, cholesterol, HCD plus 3.4%, soy lecithin (+SL), or the HCD with added levels of linoleate and choline equivalent to the +SL diet but no lecithin (-SL). Plasma lipids were determined as in experiment 1 and aortas were perfusion-fixed and Oil Red O stained for morphometric analyses of fatty streak area. Relative to the HCD group, the +SL-treated hamsters had significantly lower plasma TC (-58%), non-HDL-C (-73%) and aortic fatty streak area (-90%). Relative to the -SL group, hamsters fed the +SL diet had significantly lower plasma TC (-33%), non-HDL-C (-50%) and significantly reduced aortic fatty streak area (-79%).
In conclusion, the first experiment suggests that the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of the AHA Step I diet can be enhanced with the addition of soy lecithin without reducing plasma HDL-C levels, whereas the second experiment suggest that the hypocholesterolemic, and in particular, the anti-atherogenic properties of soy lecithin cannot be attributed solely to its linoleate content. (2)
Lecithin has also been used for immune modulation, activating specific and nonspecific defense systems in 20 patients receiving 1 teaspoonful 3 times daily for 30 days. (3) Preliminary results from various clinical trials suggest that lecithin may be an effective agent in the treatment of various types of alcohol and non-alcohol induced liver damage. (4, 5) For many individuals suffering from liver disorders spawned by toxins, viruses, and disease, phosphatidyl choline has proven more tolerable than choline when used for the enhancement of proper liver functioning.
In one particular mammalian study, a 60 percent phosphatidyl choline supplement was used on test subjects with diets high in alcohol consumption. Both liver fibrosis and cirrhosis were prevented in the test groups receiving a PC supplement. Lecithin may provide certain hepatoprotective effects. (6) Its protective benefits may also be equally effective in organs adversely affected by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) treatments. (7)
This experiment (N = 80, college students) employed a double-blind mixed design to test the effect of phosphatidylcholine (PCh) on explicit memory. Dose of placebo and PCh was compared at two levels (10 and 25 g) as was time of testing postingestion (60 and 90 min). With 25 g of PCh, which supplies 3.75 g of choline, significant improvement in explicit memory, as measured by a serial learning task, was observed at 90 min postingestion and slight improvement was observed at 60 min postigestion. Further analyses indicated that this improvement may have been due to the responses of slow learners. This is the first study to test the relationship between a single dose of PCh and explicit memory on normal human subjects. (8)