Essential C-curity - Clinical Trials
|I Product Info||I Ingredients||I Recommended Use||I Clinical Trials||I Research Brief||I References|
Indication: overall health and immune response improvement; antioxidant defense; flu prophylaxis; gingival hemorrhage; decreased blood vessel’s elasticity; nose bleeding; collagen recovery in skin and joints.
Actions: strengthens the immune system due to the combination of the most bioavailable forms of vitamin C and zinc, promotes healthy cardiovascular function, strengthens blood vessel walls, effective prevention of colds, enhances growth and regeneration of the body’s cells, lowers the risk of developing some cancers, potent antioxidant, prevents free radical damage, slows down the aging process.
Ingredients (per 1 tablet):
Vitamin C (as ascorbic acid, calcium ascorbate, ascorbyl palmitate, acerola (Malpighia glabra L) 4:1 fruit extract, rose hips (Rosa rugosa) powder) - 300 mg, zinc (as zinc citrate) - 2.7 mg, Hesperidin complex – 25 mg, Citrus bioflavonoid complex – 25 mg, Juniper berry (Juniperus communis) 2:1 extract (equivalent to 50 mg of crude herb) – 25 mg, rutin – 25 mg, Indole-3-carbinol – 1 mg.
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Essential C-curity - Clinical Trials:
Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Several studies have observed an increased risk of respiratory infections in subjects doing heavy physical exercise. Vitamin C has been shown to affect some parts of the immune system, and accordingly it seems biologically conceivable that it could have effects on the increased incidence of respiratory infections caused by heavy physical stress.
In this report the results of three placebo-controlled studies that have examined the effect of vitamin C supplementation on common cold incidence in subjects under acute physical stress are analyzed.
In one study the subjects were school-children at a skiing camp in the Swiss Alps, in another they were military troops training in Northern Canada, and in the third they were participants in a 90 km running race. In each of the three studies a considerable reduction in common cold incidence in the group supplemented with vitamin C(0.6-1.0 g/day) was found. The pooled rate ratio (RR) of common cold infections in the studies was 0.50 (95% CI: 0.35-0.69) in favour of vitamin C groups.
Accordingly, the results of the three studies suggest that vitamin C supplementation may be beneficial for some of the subjects doing heavy exercise who have problems with frequent upper respiratory infections. (3)
Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland.
In three trials of subjects under heavy acute physical stress, common cold incidence decreased by on average 50%, and in four trials of British males common cold incidence decreased by on average 30% in the vitamin C groups.
The dietary vitamin C intake in the UK is low, and consequently the benefit may be due to the correction of marginal deficiency, rather than high vitamin doses.
Regular vitamin C supplementation (> or =1 g/day) has quite consistently reduced the duration of colds, but the size of the benefit has varied greatly. In the four largest studies the duration of colds was reduced only by 5%. In two of these studies, however, absence from school and work was reduced by 14-21% per episode, which may have practical importance.
Three controlled studies recorded a reduction of at least 80% in the incidence of pneumonia in the vitamin C group, and one randomised trial reported substantial treatment benefit from vitamin C in elderly UK patients hospitalized with pneumonia or bronchitis.
It seems that the preventive effects of supplementation are mainly limited to subjects with low dietary vitamin C intake, but therapeutic effects may occur in wider population groups. Further carefully designed trials are needed to explore the effects of vitamin C. (4)
Vitamin C is an essential dietary nutrient required as a co-factor for many enzymes, and humans are among the few animals that lack the ability to synthesize the compound from glucose. The reduced form of the vitamin, ascorbic acid, is an especially effective antioxidant owing to its high electron-donating power and ready conversion back to the active reduced form. Concentrations of the vitamin in body tissues and fluids are regulated through interactions of intestinal absorption, cellular transport, and excretion. The amount of vitamin C needed to prevent scurvy is very small and easily obtained in nearly all Western diets. There is great interest in the clinical roles of vitamin C because of evidence that oxidative damage is a root cause of, or at least associated with, many diseases. Population studies show that individuals with high intakes of vitamin C have lower risk of a number of chronic diseases, including heart disease, cancer, eye diseases, and neurodegenerative conditions. However, these results may simply reflect a more healthful diet or lifestyle for individuals with a high vitamin C intake. At present, data from controlled clinical trials have not established that higher intakes of vitamin C alone will help prevent chronic degenerative diseases. However, the evidence that ascorbic acid acts as an important antioxidant in many body tissues is convincing. The new higher Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for vitamin C of 75 mg for women and 90 mg for men is, for the first time, based on the vitamin’s role as an antioxidant as well as protection from deficiency. In healthy people, amounts greater than the RDA do not appear to be helpful. Vitamin C nutriture may be more important for people with certain diseases or conditions. High intakes of the vitamin are generally well tolerated; a Tolerable Upper Level was recently set at 2 g based on gastrointestinal upset that sometimes accompanies excessive intakes. (5)
Department of Ophthalmology, Centre for Vision Research, Westmead Millennium Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress has been implicated in cataractogenesis. Long-term intake of antioxidants may offer protection against cataract. OBJECTIVE: We investigated relations between antioxidant nutrient intakes measured at baseline and the 10-y incidence of age-related cataract. DESIGN: During 1992-1994, 3654 persons aged >or=49 y attended baseline examinations of the Blue Mountains Eye Study (82.4% response). Of these persons, 2464 (67.4%) participants were followed >or=1 time after the baseline examinations (at either 5 or 10 y). At each examination, lens photography was performed and questionnaires were administered, including a 145-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Antioxidants, including beta-carotene, zinc, and vitamins A, C, and E, were assessed. Cataract was assessed at each examination from lens photographs with the use of the Wisconsin Cataract Grading System. Nuclear cataract was defined for opacity greater than standard 3. Cortical cataract was defined as cortical opacity >or= 5% of the total lens area, and posterior subcapsular (PSC) cataract was defined as the presence of any such opacity. RESULTS: Participants with the highest quintile of total intake (diet + supplements) of vitamin C had a reduced risk of incident nuclear cataract [adjusted odds ratio (OR): 0.55; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.86]. An above-median intake of combined antioxidants (vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and zinc) was associated with a reduced risk of incident nuclear cataract (OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.76). Antioxidant intake was not associated with incident cortical or PSC cataract. CONCLUSION: Higher intakes of vitamin C or the combined intake of antioxidants had long-term protective associations against development of nuclear cataract in this older population. (6)
Life Sciences Department, L’Oréal Advanced Research Laboratories, 90 rue du Général Roguet Clichy-Cédex France.
Vitamin C (VitC) plays a critical role in the maintenance of a normal mature collagen network in humans (anti-scurvy properties) by preventing the auto-inactivation of lysyl and prolyl hyroxylase, two key enzymes in collagen biosynthesis. In this study two in vitro models were designed to evaluate the effects of VitC on collagen biosynthesis and cross-linking at cellular and tissue levels. It was shown that VitC induced a dose-dependent increase in collagen type I deposits by normal human fibroblasts (NHF) cultured in monolayer, and enhanced extracellular matrix contraction by NHF in a lattice model, in a non-cytotoxic range of concentrations (103m, 104m, 105m). Exogenous VitC supply could thus contribute to the maintenance of optimal collagenic density in the dermis and locally strengthen the collagen network. Vitamin C-phosphate (VitC-P) and vitamin C-glucoside (VitC-Glu) (two VitC derivatives presenting higher chemical stability in aqueous solution) were also tested in our two models, and showed similar biological properties, but with different potencies. These two compounds can be considered as pro-vitamins for skin, and could thus advantageously substitute for VitC in VitC-based anti-ageing products, as they allow the development of stable, easy-to-use formulations. (7)
This study aimed to clarify how concentrations of vitamin C in plasma relate to the serology of periodontitis. The random sample used comprised 431 men, 194 from Finland and 237 from Russia. The plasma vitamin C concentration was determined by o-phtaldialdehyde-fluorometry, and serum immunoglobulin G antibodies to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis were determined by a multiserotype enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mean plasma vitamin C concentration was higher (P < 0.001) in Finnish subjects (mean +/- standard deviation, 4.5 +/- 2.8 mg/liter) than in Russian subjects (1.4 +/- 1.8 mg/liter). Mean antibody levels to both A. actinomycetemcomitans (4.7 +/- 3.6 versus 5.2 +/- 3.1 ELISA units [P = 0.05]) and P. gingivalis (5.7 +/- 2.5 versus 7.6 +/- 2.9 ELISA units [P < 0.001]) were lower in Finnish men than in Russian men. In the combined Finnish and Russian population, the antibody levels to P. gingivalis were negatively correlated with vitamin C concentrations (r = -0.22; P < 0.001); this association remained statistically significant (P = 0.010) in a linear regression model after adjustment for confounding factors. The proportion of P. gingivalis-seropositive subjects decreased with increasing vitamin C concentrations (P for trend, <0.01), but no trend was seen among A. actinomycetemcomitans-seropositive subjects. In conclusion, P. gingivalis infection is associated with low concentrations of vitamin C in plasma, which may increase colonization of P. gingivalis or disturb the healing of the infected periodontium. (8)
BACKGROUND: Antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid, play a role in scavenging free radicals to protect against oxidative endothelial damage. Excess fat may promote fatty acid oxidation and increase free radical concentrations, which could result in increased antioxidant use. Whether plasma ascorbic acid concentrations are associated with fat distribution remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine the association between abdominal obesity, as measured by the waist-to-hip ratio, and plasma ascorbic acid concentrations in the general population. DESIGN: We examined the cross-sectional relation between anthropometric measurements of fat distribution and plasma ascorbic acid concentrations in 19 068 men and women aged 45-79 y without known chronic illness. Dietary ascorbic acid intake was estimated for a subgroup of 8178 men and women who kept 7-d food diaries coded for nutrient intake. RESULTS: The waist-to-hip ratio was inversely related to plasma ascorbic acid concentrations in both men and women. This association was independent of body mass index, age, vitamin supplement use, cigarette smoking, and socioeconomic group. Waist and hip circumferences showed separate and opposite associations with plasma ascorbic acid concentrations, independent of body mass index and other covariates. Dietary ascorbic acid intake only partly explained the observed associations. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma ascorbic acid was associated with fat distribution independent of body mass index. Differences in dietary intake and lifestyle habits, underlying systemic oxidative stress, or both may explain the inverse relation between fat distribution and plasma ascorbic acid concentrations. Additional studies are needed to determine the underlying explanation of these observations. (9)
Feeding indole-3-carbinol or broccoli extracts rich in indole-3-carbinol has dramatically reduced the frequency, size, and number of tumors in laboratory rats exposed to a carcinogen. It appears to be especially protective against breast and cervical cancers because of a number of actions, including an ability to increase the breakdown of estrogen. (10)
Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is a naturally occurring constituent of cruciferous vegetables. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of I3C and its mode of action. By using an NCCLS broth microdilution assay, the activity of I3C was evaluated against human pathogenic microorganisms including clinically isolated antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. The results indicated that I3C exhibited broad spectrum antimicrobial activities. To elucidate the physiological changes of the fungal cells induced by I3C, we performed a flow cytometric analysis for a cell cycle. The results showed that I3C arrested the cell cycle at the G(2)/M phase in Candida albicans. To understand the antifungal mode of action of I3C, the change in the membrane dynamics was monitored by using fluorescence changing experiments against C. albicans. The results suggest that I3C may exert antifungal activity by disrupting the structure of the cell membrane. The present study indicates that I3C has considerable antimicrobial activity, deserving further investigation for clinical applications. (11)
A combination of epidemiological and experimental data provides suggestive evidence that a high intake of cruciferous vegetables protects against some cancers at various sites. (12)