ElmiGone™ - Clinical Trials
|I Product Info||I Ingredients||I Recommended Use||I Clinical Trials||I Research Brief||I References|
Indication: helminthic and parasitic invasions; skin problems.
Main Actions: effective antiparasitic and antihelmintic product, provides choleretic, anti-inflammatory, and mild laxative action, provides antiseptic, bactericidal, and antiallergenic effect, helps clear up the skin problems.
Proprietary Blend - 390.0 mg: Black Walnut (Juglans regia) hull, Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed, Knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum) 10:1 extract, Clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) bud, Sage (Salvia officinalis) leaf, Garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulb, Gentian (Gentiana lutea L.) root, Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seed, Chamomile (Anthemis nobilis (LINN.)) 10:1 flower extract, Black pepper (Piper nigrum (LINN.)) fruit, Peppermint (Mentha piperita L). leaf, Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) leaf, Fennel (Foeniculum vulgaris L.) seed, Sodium copper chlorophyllin.
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ElmiGone™ - Clinical Trials:
The active constituent of black walnut is juglone, which has demonstrated both antiparasitic and antimicrobial activity. (3)
A decoction of the hull of Juglans nigra fruit has been used traditionally to expel worms. (4) The unripe hulls of Juglans nigra contain 1,4-naphthoquinones including juglone and plumbagin. (5) The juglone content in hulls varies with different cultivars and different months of growth. (6)
In vitro studies indicate that plumbagin inhibited the motility of and hatching of Haemonchus contortus first stage larvae.
Plumbagin was larvacidal towards Ascaris suum at the highest test concentration (100 mM). Partial inhibition of embryonic development of A. suum occurred with plumbagin. The authors suggested that because of the relatively high doses required for the maximal effect on inhibiting the development of larval stages, plumbagin may not find practical application. The combination with other anthelmintic herbs would however, boost the activity of plumbagin. (6)
Garlic is mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China was first mentioned in A.D. 510. Louis Pasteur studied the antibacterial action of garlic in 1858.
Garlic has been demonstrated to kill parasites, including amoeba (7) and hookworm (8) in test tubes and in animals. Older studies in humans support the use of garlic to treat roundworm, pinworm, and hookworm. (9)
Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as an anthelmintic in western herbal medicine, for example, as a decoction or freshly mashed and administered to children on an empty stomach. (10)
Garlic extract was effective against Rhabditis spp. and the eggs of Ascaris suum in vitro. (11)
The pharmacological properties of essential oils obtained from two varieties of Anthemis nobilis was studied. The two varieties, named "white-headed" or double flowered and "yellow-headed", present considerable morphological differences and yield essential oils with different composition. These essential oils proved to possess interesting anti-inflammatory and sedative properties, especially that derived from the "White-headed" variety. (12)
The present study investigates the hepatoprotective effect of fenugreek seed polyphenolic extract (FPEt) against ethanol-induced hepatic injury and apoptosis in rats. Chronic ethanol administration (6 g/kg/day x 60 days) caused liver damage that was manifested by the elevation of markers of liver dysfunction--aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), bilirubin and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in plasma and reduction in liver glycogen. The effects on alcohol metabolizing enzymes such as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) were studied and found to be altered in the alcohol-treated group. Ethanol administration resulted in adaptive induction of the activities of cytochrome p450 (cyt-p-450) and cytochrome-b5 (cyt-b5) and reduction in cytochrome-c-reductase (cyt-c-red) and glutathione-S-tranferase (GST), a phase II enzyme. Further, ethanol reduced the viability of isolated hepatocytes (ex vivo) as assessed by the trypan blue exclusion test and increased hepatocyte apoptosis as assessed by propidium iodide staining (PI). Treatment with FPEt restored the levels of markers of liver injury and mitigated the alterations in alcohol metabolizing and detoxification enzymes and the electron transport component cytochrome-c reductase. Increased hepatocyte viability and reduced apoptotic nuclei were observed in FPEt-treated rats. These findings demonstrate that FPEt acts as a protective agent against ethanol-induced abnormalities in the liver. The effects of FPEt are comparable with those of a known hepatoprotective agent, silymarin. (13)
The insecticidal activity of Trigonella foenum-graecunm (fenugreek) against the larval maturation and adult emergency of An. pharoensis 3rd stage was evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. Concentrations of 100%, 70%, 50%, 25%, 5%, 2%, 1%, 0.9%, 0.7%, 0.5% & 0.3% showed 100% larval mortality rate. 0.2% & 0.1% caused mortality of 88.9% & 66.7% respectively. On the other hand, the fecundity of emerged adults was zero % and 33.3%. However, one control larvae died and the nine emerged adults were fertile. So, it was recommended to be use in controlling larvae of An. pharoensis. (14)
The present study describes the antimicrobial activity and free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of essential oils from Mentha aquatica L., Mentha longifolia L., and Mentha piperita L. The chemical profile of each essential oil was determined by GC-MS and TLC. All essential oils exhibited very strong antibacterial activity, in particularly against Esherichia coli strains. The most powerful was M. piperita essential oil, especially towards multiresistant strain of Shigella sonei and Micrococcus flavus ATTC 10,240. All tested oils showed significant fungistatic and fungicidal activity [expressed as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) values, respectively], that were considerably higher than those of the commercial fungicide bifonazole. The essential oils of M. piperita and M. longifolia were found to be more active than the essential oil of M. aquatica. Especially low MIC (4 microL/mL) and MFC (4 microL/mL) were found with M. piperita oil against Trichophyton tonsurans and Candida albicans (both 8 microL/mL). The RSC was evaluated by measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oils on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and OH radicals. All examined essential oils were able to reduce DPPH radicals into the neutral DPPH-H form, and this activity was dose-dependent. However, only the M. piperita oil reduced DPPH to 50 % (IC50 = 2.53 microg/mL). The M. piperita essential oil also exhibited the highest OH radical scavenging activity, reducing OH radical generation in the Fenton reaction by 24 % (pure oil). According to GC-MS and TLC (dot-blot techniques), the most powerful scavenging compounds were monoterpene ketones (menthone and isomenthone) in the essential oils of M. longifolia and M. piperita and 1,8-cineole in the oil of M. aquatica. (15)
The essential oil extracted from the dried flower buds of clove, Eugenia caryophyllata L. Merr. & Perry (Myrtaceae), is used as a topical application to relieve pain and to promote healing and also finds use in the fragrance and flavouring industries. The main constituents of the essential oil are phenylpropanoids such as carvacrol, thymol, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde. The biological activity of Eugenia caryophyllata has been investigated on several microorganisms and parasites, including pathogenic bacteria, Herpes simplex and hepatitis C viruses. In addition to its antimicrobial, antioxidant, antifungal and antiviral activity, clove essential oil possesses antiinflammatory, cytotoxic, insect repellent and anaesthetic properties. This short review addresses the chemical composition and biological effects of clove essential oil, and includes new results from GC/MS analysis and a study of its antimicrobial activity against a large number of multi-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from dialysis biomaterials. (16)
Many essential oils are known to possess an antioxidant activity and antifungal properties and therefore they potentially act as antimycotic agents. Essential oil of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) was isolated by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The antioxidant effect of the tested oil was evaluated by measuring its 2,2-diphenyl-l-1-picrylhydrazil radical scavenging ability and the antiradical dose required to cause a 50% inhibition (IC50) was recorded. The antifungal activity of essential oils was evaluated against 53 human pathogenic yeasts using a disc paper diffusion method. Our results show that the major components present in the clove bund oil were eugenol (88.6%), eugenyl acetate (5.6%), beta-caryophyllene (1.4%) and 2-heptanone (0.9%). The tested essential oil exhibited a very strong radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.2 microg ml-1) when compared with the synthetic antioxidant (tert-butylated hydroxytoluene, IC50 = 11.5 microg ml-1). On the other hand, this species displayed an important antifungal effect against the tested strains. It is clear that clove oil shows powerful antifungal activity; and it can be used as an easily accessible source of natural antioxidants and in pharmaceutical applications. (17)
The essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were analyzed by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and assayed for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Antimicrobial activity was tested against 13 bacterial strains and 6 fungi, including Candida albicans and 5 dermatomycetes. The most important antibacterial activity of both essential oils was expressed on Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, S. enteritidis, and Shigella sonei. A significant rate of antifungal activity, especially of essential oil of rosemary, was also exhibited. Antioxidant activity was evaluated as a free radical scavenging capacity (RSC), together with the effect on lipid peroxidation (LP). RSC was assessed by measuring the scavenging activity of essential oils on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) and hydroxyl radicals. Effects on LP were evaluated following the activities of essential oils in Fe(2+)/ascorbate and Fe(2+)/H2O2 systems of induction. Investigated essential oils reduced the DPPH radical formation (IC50 = 3.82 microg/mL for rosemary and 1.78 microg/mL for sage) in a dose-dependent manner. Strong inhibition of LP in both systems of induction was especially observed for the essential oil of rosemary. (18)
Experimental research was carried out at the Parasitology and Chemistry laboratories of the Jorge Basadre Grohmann National University, in Tacna. The process involved two phases: (1) determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Cucurbita Maxima as an antiparasitic agent using canine tapeworms with an intestinal isolation of 5 to 6 hours, and (2) determination of the side-effects of Curbita Maxima on exposed albino rats. It was found that the MIC of 23 gr. of pumpkin seed in 100 ml. of distilled water can produce an antihelminthic effect. This concentration is equivalent to +/- 73 pumpkin seeds (x2 = 5.6, p 23 gr. There is a protheolithic effect with an average survival time of 38.4 minutes.Microscopically the mature proglottids present a destruction of the tegument involving the basal membrane. In the gravid proglottids there is egg destruction. These findings are accentuated when experimenting with Cucurbita Maxima in a concentration of 30 and 32 gr. Superficial non-erosive gastritis was found in weys rats after 4 hours of administering 9 gr/kg. (19)
Piper nigrum finds an extensive application in antibacterial preparations belonging to Ayurvedic system of medicine. A bioguided extraction and fractionation of the petroleum ether extract of the berries of P. nigrum afforded 2E, 4E, 8Z-N-isobutyleicosatrienamide (1), pellitorine (2), trachyone (3), pergumidiene (4) and isopiperolein B (5). Pergumidiene and trachyone are isolated for the first time from P. nigrum. All the isolated compounds were active against Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus sphaericus, and Staphylococcus aureus amongst Gram + ve bacteria, and Klebsiella aerogenes and Chromobacterium violaceum among Gram -ve bacterial strains. (20)
The volatile oils of black pepper [Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry (Myrtaceae)], geranium [Pelargonium graveolens L'Herit (Geraniaceae)], nutmeg [Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae), oregano [Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum (Link) Letsw. (Lamiaceae)] and thyme [Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae)] were assessed for antibacterial activity against 25 different genera of bacteria. These included animal and plant pathogens, food poisoning and spoilage bacteria. The volatile oils exhibited considerable inhibitory effects against all the organisms under test while their major components demonstrated various degrees of growth inhibition. (21)
Institute for Biological Research, "S. Stankovic," Bulevar despota Stefana, Belgrade, Serbia.
The in vivo evaluation of the toxicological and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris L. and its main component thymol was made on 2-month-old male Wistar rats. We examined the therapeutic potency against experimentally induced dermatomycoses in rats, using the most frequent dermatomycetes, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and T. tonsurans. The therapeutic efficacy of a 1% solution of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris and thymol as well as the commercial preparation bifonazole was evaluated. During the 37-day observation period the oil-treated animals were cured. (22)