Fish Oil GP - Clinical Trials
|I Product Info||I Ingredients||I Recommended Use||I Clinical Trials||I Research Brief||I References|
Indication: cardiovascular disease prophylaxis, high cholesterol level, impaired blood vessel elasticity, impaired liver and gallbladder functions, dry skin, for overall health improvement.
Actions: delivers polyunsaturated fatty acids, essential for good health, supports the cardiovascular system, lowers triglyceride levels, helps maintain healthy cholesterol levels, prevents plaque formation on the blood vessel walls, improves elasticity, improves blood circulation, lowers lithogenicity of bile, essential for the normal brain function, improves the body’s immune respons.
Ingredients (per 1 softgel):
Vitamin E (as dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate) - 1 IU, Fish Oil - 1000.0 mg, Eicosapentaenoic Acid - 180.0 mg, Docosahexaenoic Acid - 120.0 mg.
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Fish Oil GP - Clinical Trials:
The use of omega-3 fatty acids can change the electrophysiological properties of myocardium.
American scientists headed by William Harris at the University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine analyzed electrocardiographic data obtained in two researches that included 18 patients 4.4 +/- 2.6 years after heart transplantation. All participants received 1 - 3.4 g of omega-3 fatty acids per day for 4 to 6 months. It was reported that omega-3 fatty acids helped slow down the heart beat rate from 88 down to 83 beats per minute. QRS duration increased from 107 to 117. QT duration remained unchanged. These findings suggest that omega-3 fatty acids may modify electrophysiological properties of the myocardium itself. (11)
“A diet with omega-3-rich oily fish could stop the spread of prostate cancer” – this is the statement made by scientist from Paterson Institute, Manchester, Great Britain.
"Omega 6 fats, found in vegetable oils, nuts and seeds, increased the spread of tumour cells into bone marrow. This invasion was blocked by omega 3 fats - the ones found in oily fish. It is possible to have a healthy balance of these two types of fat - we only need about half as much omega 3 as omega 6 - that will still stop cancer cells from spreading," said lead author Mick Brown from the Paterson Institute.
Noel Clarke, principal investigator of the research group, said: "We think tumors may exploit the omega 6 fats as a high energy source - giving them the energy they need to maintain a high growth rate - and to create important signaling molecules.
Omega 3 fats are known to interfere with the various functions of omega 6 fats, confirmed by our findings. This effectively removes the cancer's 'free lunch', a fact that may have clinical importance.
Some tumors develop slowly in the prostate without producing symptoms and sometimes when symptoms do develop, it is because the cancer has already spread. Eating a diet with the right balance of omega 3 and omega 6 fats may well help to keep prostate cancer within the prostate gland." (12)
Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation can improve endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients with chronic heart failure.
The study investigated the effects of omega-3 fatty acids administration on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients ≥65 years old who received treatment for chronic heart failure (CHF). Twenty patients (mean age 73 years; 15 men) with grade II and III CHF who were on maximal medical management were recruited. Patients were randomized in a double-blind, crossover fashion to 6 weeks of omega-3 fatty acid (1.8 g ecosapentaenoic acid and 1.2 g docosahexaenoic acid) or olive oil. Forearm blood flow (FBF) responses to incremental doses of intra-arterial sodium nitroprusside, acetycholine (ACH), angiotensin-II, and Ng-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester were assessed by venous occlusion strain gauge plethysmography. The endothelium-dependent increase in FBF was greater in response in ACH infusion after omega-3 fatty acid administration (7.9) compared with baseline (7.95) and olive oil administration (7.27). Dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation was accompanied by an increase in FBF response to ACH, which represents enhanced endothelium-dependent vasodilation in CHF. (13)
Dr. T. Huang and his colleagues from Tufts University, Boston, MA analyzed the data collected by Cardiovascular Health Cognition Study compared associations of lean fish vs fatty fish (tuna or other fish) intake with dementia, Alzheimer disease, and vascular dementia in 2233 patients.
Although consumption of lean fried fish had no protective effect, consumption of fatty fish more than twice per week was associated with a reduction in risk of dementia by 28% (95% CI: 0.51 to 1.02), and AD by 41% (95% CI: 0.36 to 0.95) in comparison to those who ate fish less than once per month. Stratification by APOE 4 showed this effect to be selective to those without the 4 allele. (14)
Many small studies have concluded that fish oil supplementation leads to a marked improvement in rheumatoid arthritis symptoms. However, precisely because these studies have been small, their publication has not had a major impact on the medical treatment of arthritis. A team of researchers from the Harvard Medical School has combined and analyzed the results of these smaller studies. Their meta-analysis covered 10 double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies aimed at determining the effect of fish oil supplementation on 8 measures of arthritis severity including the number of tender joints, number of swollen joints, extent of morning stiffness, grip strength, erythrocyte sedimentation rates, and overall global assessment of disease severity. The studies involved a total of 368 participants who took fish oil supplements for at least three months. The meta-analysis revealed a highly significant decrease in the number of tender joints and a significant shortening in the duration of morning stiffness among patients supplementing with fish oils. (15)
Belgian researchers have released the results of a major study aimed at determining the long-term effects of fish oil supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Sixty patients completed the year-long, double-blind, randomized study. The participants were divided into 3 groups with 1 group receiving a daily supplement of 6 capsules containing 1 gram of olive oil each (placebo); another group receiving 3 olive oil capsules plus 3 fish oil capsules (containing 1 gram of fish oil each); and the third group receiving 6 fish oil capsules daily (corresponding to 2.6 grams/day of omega-3 fatty acid). All patients continued on their regular arthritis medications.
Three months into the study it became clear that the patients on fish oil alone had improved considerably when compared to the other 2 groups and this improvement became even more pronounced after 12 months of supplementation. Fifty-three per cent of the patients in the fish oil group showed significant overall improvement as compared to 10% in the placebo group and 33% in the fish oil plus olive oil group. Forty-seven per cent of the patients in the fish oil group were also able to reduce their intake of NSAIDs and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs as compared to 15% in the placebo group and 29% in the olive oil plus fish oil group. The researchers conclude that long-term supplementation with fish oils benefits rheumatoid arthritis patients significantly and may lessen their need for NSAIDs and other RA medications. (16)
Medical doctors at the Royal Hallamshire Hospital have released the results of a clinical trial designed to evaluate the effects of oral supplementation with fish oils in the treatment of psoriasis. The 28 patients involved in the trial had all been diagnosed with chronic psoriasis. They were randomized into two groups with one group receiving 10 fish oil capsules (containing 1.8 grams of EPA) and the other group receiving 10 olive oil capsules every day for the duration of the 12-week trial. After 8 weeks of treatment there was a significant reduction in itching, erythema and scaling in the fish oil group and a trend towards a decrease in the surface area of skin affected by the disease. No significant changes occurred in the placebo group. The researchers conclude that fish oil supplementation is useful in the treatment of psoriasis particularly when itching is a major problem. (17)
According to the results of the age-related eye disease study conducted by John Paul SanGiovanni, 4513 patients in the age group 60-80 years old used omega-3 fatty acid regularly (more than 2 servings of omega-3-rich oily fish) demonstrated the decreased risk of developing age-related macular degeneration.
Analyzing Women’s Health Study on 32470 women, 45-84 years old showed the tendency to minimize the risk of dry eye syndrome with supplemental omega-3 fatty acids intake (0,83; р = 0,04).
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition and JAMA review both indicated decreases in total mortality and cardiovascular incidents (i.e. myocardial infarctions) associated with the regular consumption of fish and fish oil supplements. Of particular importance is that no or very few complications were documented. (18, 19)
41 students took either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oil capsules containing 1.5-1.8 grams DHA/day (17 females and 5 males) or control oil capsules containing 97% soybean oil plus 3% fish oil (12 females and 7 males) for 3 mo in a double-blind fashion. They took a psychological test (P-F Study) and Stroop and dementia-detecting tests at the start and end of the study. The present study started at the end of summer vacation and ended in the middle of mental stress such as final exams. In the control group extraggression (aggression against others) in P-F Study was significantly increased at the end of the study as compared with that measured at the start (delta = +8.9%, P = 0.0022), whereas it was not significantly changed in the DHA group (delta = -1.0%). The 95% CI of differences between the DHA and control groups were -16.8 to -3.0%. DHA supplementation did not affect the Stroop and dementia-detecting tests. Thus, DHA intake prevented extraggression from increasing at times of mental stress. This finding might help understand how fish oils prevent disease like coronary heart disease. (20)
The study was conducted to test the hypothesis that, in heart failure patients, dietary supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) enhances arterial baroreceptor control of the cardiovascular system, administration of PUFA reduces the risk of life-threatening arrhythmias in patients surviving myocardial infarction. Patients with post-myocardial infarction left ventricular dysfunction underwent beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) and R-R interval (electrocardiogram) recording; baroreceptor reflexes were assessed from the bradycardic and depressor responses to graded neck suction (NS) as well as by computation of the alpha "spontaneous" baroreflex sensitivity index. Assessments were repeated after prolonged treatment with PUFA (2 g/die) - 15 patients, or placebo – 10 patients. As the result: baseline BP and R-R interval were unaffected by PUFA. Both reflex depressor and bradycardic responses to NS increased after PUFA (respectively from -0.09 to -0.16 mm Hg x mm Hg(-1), p < 0.01, and from 1.25 to 1.76 ms x mm Hg(-1), p < 0.04) but not after placebo. The spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity increased in the PUFA (from 8.99 to 12.2 ms x mm Hg(-1), p < 0.02) but not in the placebo group. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (but not placebo) treatment also significantly increased R-R interval total variance and low-frequency and high-frequency spectral powers. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary PUFA supplementation markedly potentiates baroreflex function and enhances heart rate variability in patients with stable congestive heart failure. (21)
Another study conducted by a group of Medical Doctors at Columbia University was trying to find out the association between low levels of docosahexaenoic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, elevated ratios of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids, and major depression and, possibly, suicidal behavior. Plasma polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in phospholipids were measured in 33 medication-free depressed patients monitored for suicide attempt over a 2-year period. Survival analysis examined the association of plasma polyunsaturated fatty acid status and pathological outcome. As a result three of the 33 subjects were lost to follow-up, 23 were nonattempters, and seven made at least one suicide attempt. Two attempts were fatal. Subjects had a mean age of 40.4 years, with 16.6 years of illness duration and 3.7 prior episodes of depression. A lower docosahexaenoic acid percentage of total plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and a higher omega-6/omega-3 ratio predicted suicide attempt. CONCLUSIONS: A low docosahexaenoic acid percentage and low omega-3 proportions of lipid profile predicted risk of suicidal behavior among depressed patients over the 2-year period. This finding has implications for the neurobiology of suicide and reduction of suicide risk. (22)