Refungin™ - Clinical Trials

I Product Info I Ingredients
I Recommended Use
I Clinical Trials
I Research Brief
I References

refunginl

 

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Indication: intestinal candidosis, helmintic and parasitic invasion, alcohol abuse, can be used in drug rehabilitation program.

Actions: anticandidal, antiparasitic, and antihelminthic product, helps to restore healthy intestinal microflora, helps to detoxify the body.

Ingredients (per one capsule):

Vitamin A (as beta carotene) - 3 000 IU, Vitamin E (as d-alpha-tocopheryl succinate) - 90 IU, Selenium (as selenium + GPM) – 30 mcg; Proprietary blend – 308 mg: Pau d’Arco (Tabebuia impetiginosa)  bark 4:1 extract, Echinacea (Echinacea purpurea) 5:1 extract (aerial parts), Caprylic acid (as sodium caprylate), Odor-controlled garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract (10,000 ppm allicin), Black walnut (Juglans regia) bark , Peppermint leaf (Mentha piperita), Borage seed (Borago officinalis)(10% GLA).

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Refungin™ - Clinical Trials:

Lapachol has been used as a topical barrier to trematodes specifically Shcistosoma mansion, which causes schistosomiasis. This parasite lives in water and enters the host by penetrating through the skin. This pathogen can cause a complicated disease, which can sometimes be fatal. Also it is stated that oral lapachol formulation to be effective against skin penetration. In addition, lapachol is claimed to have some effect against Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes trypanosomiasis or Chaga’s disease. (1)

 

The biological activities of the naphthoquinones lapachol and its cyclization product beta-lapachone, extracted from trees of the genus Tabebuia, have been intensively studied. Given continuity to the studies about heterocyclic derivatives obtained from the reaction of these naphtoquinones with amino-containing reagents, 22 derivatives of beta-lapachone, nor-beta-lapachone and lapachol were synthesised and their activities against trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi were evaluated. The compounds were grouped as oxazolic, imidazolic, phenoxazinic, indolic, pyranic and cyclopentenic derivatives. The variability of the new structures is based on the great electrophilicity of 1,2-quinoidal carbonyls towards reagents containing nitrogen or carbon as nucleophilic centres. In relation to the trypanocidal activity of the synthesised compounds, in view of their structural diversity, tendencies only could be verified. Among the cyclofunctionalised products the oxazolic and imidazolic derivatives showed +/- 1.5 to 34.8 times higher activity than crystal violet, the standard drug for the sterilization of stored blood. These results corroborate the tendency of trypanocidal activity in imidazolic skeletons, and indicate that this moiety could be used as a guide for architectural delineation of molecules with potential value for the chemotherapy of Chagas disease. (2)

 

The active constituent of black walnut is juglone, which has demonstrated both antiparasitic and antimicrobial activity. (3)

 

A decoction of the hull of Juglans nigra fruit has been used traditionally to expel worms. (4)


The unripe hulls of Juglans nigra contain 1,4-naphthoquinones including juglone and plumbagin. (5)

The juglone content in hulls varies with different cultivars and different months of growth. (6) In vitro studies indicate that plumbagin inhibited the motility of and hatching of Haemonchus contortus first stage larvae. Plumbagin was larvacidal towards Ascaris suum at the highest test concentration (100 mM). Partial inhibition of embryonic development of A. suum occurred with plumbagin. The authors suggested that because of the relatively high doses required for the maximal effect on inhibiting the development of larval stages, plumbagin may not find practical application. The combination with other anthelmintic herbs would however, boost the activity of plumbagin. (6)

 

Garlic is mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China was first mentioned in A.D. 510. Louis Pasteur studied the antibacterial action of garlic in 1858.

Garlic has been demonstrated to kill parasites, including amoeba (7) and hookworm (8) in test tubes and in animals. Older studies in humans support the use of garlic to treat roundworm, pinworm, and hookworm. (9)

Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as an anthelmintic in western herbal medicine, for example, as a decoction or freshly mashed and administered to children on an empty stomach. (10) Garlic extract was effective against Rhabditis spp. and the eggs of Ascaris suum in vitro. (11)

 

Curled mint (Mentha crispa) leaf, a close relative of peppermint, has been shown in a preliminary trial to help relieve the symptoms of giardia and amoeba infections in children and adults, as well as to eliminate these parasites in many cases. (12) This study used a tincture of curled mint in the amount of 2 ml three times per day for five days, or 1 ml three times per day for five days for children. Given their close relationship, peppermint could probably be substituted for curled mint when curled mint is unavailable.

 

Echinacea is well known for its ability to stimulate the immune system, with such claims based on numerous scientific studies. The various actions of this herb may contribute to increasing the body’s resistance to bacterial and viral infection. A key constituent has demonstrated good effects against Candida, as well as the Leishmania and Listeria parasites in test tube and animal studies.

 

Preliminary research from the 1940s and 1950s indicated that caprylic acid (a naturally occurring fatty acid) was an effective antifungal compound against Candida infections of the intestines. (13, 14)

 

Caprylic acid inhibits fungal growth, and has been used to reduce Candida overgrowth in the GI tract. It’s strong effect on the immune system is reported in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.