Ginkgo Forte GP - Clinical Trials
|I Product Info||I Ingredients
||I Recommended Use
||I Clinical Trials
||I Research Brief
Low USA domestic & international
Indication: coronary, cerebral and peripheral circulation impairment; decreased vessel elasticity and increased vascular permeability; stress, intense mental activity, memory impairment; diminished eyesight.
Actions: improves cerebral and peripheral blood circulation, strengthens the cardiovascular system, decreases vascular permeability, improves blood vessel wall elasticity, reduces the tendency of blood to clot in blood vessels, supports cognitive function, improves memory and concentration, improves eye health, potent antioxidant.
Ingredients (per 1 capsule):Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract (50:1) (Standardized to 24% Ginkgo flavone glycosides – 19.2 mg and 6% terpene lactones – 4.8 mg) (equivalent to 4000 mg of crude herb) - 80.0 mg, Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica) leaf extract (12:1) (10% asiaticosides – 15 mg) (equivalent to 1800 mg of crude herb) – 150 mg.
Ginkgo Forte GP - Clinical Trials:
A meta-analysis, published in the British Journal of Pharmacology, analyzed the research conducted in over 40 clinical studies investigating Ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of cerebral insufficiency. Cerebral insufficiency is associated with age-related mental decline or dementia. The resulting analysis concluded that the reviewed research was on par with research conducted on traditional prescription medications for treatment of dementia and that Ginkgo biloba extract is effective in reducing all symptoms of cerebral
insufficiency, including impaired mental function. (6)
In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized study, 72 patients with cerebral insufficiency (lack of blood flow to the brain) were subjected to a computerized test of short term memory. At the end of six weeks, the group receiving Ginkgo biloba extract exhibited a statistically significant improvement in short term memory capacity while the placebo group showed no
significant increase. (7)
Clinical evidence indicates that Ginkgo biloba extract may be useful in the treatment of certain types of depression, notably "resistant" depression. In one placebo-controlled study, patients who continued to exhibit symptoms of depression after the use of antidepressants were given 240 mg per day of Ginkgo biloba extract. The patients receiving Ginkgo biloba extract experienced a significant reduction in depressive symptoms as well as an improvement in cognitive function. (8)
In an open clinical trial of 60 patients having erectile dysfunction, taking 60mg of ginkgo per day, 50% of the patients regained potency and 25% showed improved arterial blood flow
following 6 months of supplementation (5% showed no improvement). (9)
Recently there has been much speculation, that Ginkgo biloba extract may act as a ‘smart drug' or nootropic agent in the healthy young to improve intelligence. A 30-d randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in which 61 participants were administered a battery of validated neuropsychological tests before and after treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract. Statistical analysis indicated significant improvements in speed of information processing working memory and executive processing attributable to the EGb. (10)
The effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb(50)) on nerve regeneration and its dose-effect relationship was investigated in a rat model. Sciatic nerve transection and repair was done in 120 Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into four groups and given normal saline, low-dose EGb(50) (50 mg kg(-1) d(-1)), moderate-dose EGb(50) (100 mg kg(-1) d(-1)), and high-dose EGb(50) (200 mg kg(-1) d(-1)), respectively. Electrophysiological, histological examinations, and functional evaluation were conducted at various postoperative intervals. Sensory regeneration distance, sciatic functional index (SFI), motor nerve conduction velocity, compound muscle action potential, axon regeneration index, and muscle mass were significantly higher in EGb(50) groups than in saline groups. All but SFI of those parameters were better in high-dose group when compared with those in moderate- and low-dose groups. EGb(50) has the effect of promoting regeneration of injured peripheral nerve.The higher the dose, the better the result. (11)
A large body of data emphasizes the central role of mitochondrial dysfunction during aging and as an early event in neurodegenerative diseases. In one study PC12 cells and dissociated mice brain cells, as well as isolated mitochondria were used to investigate the effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on mitochondrial functions. Mitochondrial abnormalities during aging were mimicked by using external factors (nitrosative stress, serum deprivation and complexes inhibitors) consequently altering mitochondrial processes, such as energy metabolism. As markers for the function of mitochondria, ATP levels and mitochondrial membrane potential were measured. Ginkgo biloba extract alleviated mitochondrial functions in vitro at concentrations as low as 0.01mg/ml. Treating two different age groups of mice with Ginkgo biloba extract 761 (100mg/kg body weight for 14 days) showed beneficial effects on complexes I, IV and V of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and against nitrosative stress. Interestingly, these effects were only observed in the aged mice group, proving higher efficacy of EGb 761 during aging. The single components of Ginkgo biloba extract showed in both cell models protection of the mitochondrial membrane potential indicating that a complementary action of the components is responsible for the versatile actions of EGb 761. (12)
The prevention or deceleration of atherogenesis is one of the most significant anti-aging objectives since this is a matter of avoidance of myocardial infarction and stroke. To approach this prophylactic aim, phytochemical nutrition counteracting peroxidation of blood lipids based on their scavenger qualities for reactive oxygen species (ROS) can possibly serve. For example, oxidized LDL particles are highly atherogenic. Against this background, we investigated in a pilot study the effect of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761: Rökan novo), the free oxygen radical scavenging properties of which are well-documented, on the atherosclerotic nanoplaque formation in cardiovascular high-risk patients. In eight patients who had undergone an aortocoronary bypass operation, the reduction of atherosclerotic nanoplaque formation amounted to 11.9 +/- 2.5% (p < 0.0078) and of nanoplaque size to 24.4 +/- 8.1% (p < 0.0234), respectively, after a 2-month therapy with Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761, 2 x 120 mg daily, Rökan novo, Spitzner Arzneimittel, Ettlingen, Germany). Additionally, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was upregulated by 15.7 +/- 7.0% (p < 0.0391), the quotient oxLDL/LDL lowered by 17.0 +/- 5.5% (p < 0.0234) and lipoprotein(a) concentration decreased by 23.4 +/- 7.9% (p < 0.0234) in the patients' blood after the 2-month medication regimen. The concentration of the vasodilating substances cAMP and cGMP was augmented by 37.5 +/- 9.1% (p < 0.0078) and 27.7 +/- 8.3% (p < 0.0156), respectively. A multimodal regression analysis reveals a basis for a mechanistic explanation of nanoplaque reduction under ginkgo treatment. The atherosclerosis inhibiting effect is due to an upregulation in the body's own radical scavenging enzymes and an attenuation of the risk factors oxLDL/LDL and Lp(a). Furthermore, the significant increase in the vasodilator cAMP and cGMP concentration powerfully supports the maintenance of an open bypass. (13)
The antidepressant effect of Ginkgo biloba extract was examined using two behavioral models, the forced swimming test (FST) in rats and tail suspension test (TST) in mice. Ginkgo biloba extract significantly reduced immobility time in the FST at a dosage of 10 and 50 mg/kg body weight after repeated oral treatment for 14 d, although no change of motor dysfunction was observed with the same dosage in the open field test. These results indicate that Ginkgo biloba extract might possess an antidepressant activity. In addition, v markedly shortened immobility time in the TST after acute inter-peritoneal treatment at a dosage of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight. The present study clearly demonstrated that Ginkgo biloba extract exerts an antidepressant effect in these two behavioral models. (14)
The free-radical-scavenger activity of Ginkgo flavone glycosides has been proved in “in-vivo” and “n-vitro” experiments by French scientists.
Free radicals are involved in numerous skin diseases, especially inflammatory reactions and photosenescence. To identify possible free-radical scavenging by an original terpene-free Ginkgo biloba extract containing 33% Ginkgo flavone glycosides, mostly quercetin and kaempferol derivatives, they studied its activity by means of in-vitro and in-vivo experiments, using superoxide dismutase (SOD) as a positive control. By means of an in-vitro electron-spin resonance (ESR) assay they compared the activity of the Ginkgo extract with that of its two aglycones, quercetin and kaempferol. Quercetin and Ginkgo extract had significant antioxidant properties without pro-oxidant effect. In contrast, kaempferol, above an optimum antioxidant concentration, behaved as a pro-oxidant. The in-vivo experiments were conducted on an anti-inflammatory model. The cutaneous blood flux which reflects the skin inflammatory level was recorded by means of a laser Doppler perfusion imager. The data confirmed the free-radical-scavenging property of both Ginkgo extract and SOD. The Ginkgo extract significantly inhibited (37%) cutaneous blood flux to the same extent as SOD. These data confirmed the antioxidant property of Ginkgo extract. A complementary spin-trapping technique would enable identification of the free radicals involved. This Ginkgo extract should be useful for protection of the skin against free radicals. (15)
Clinical trials have also shown gotu kola can help those with chronic venous insufficiency.
Gotu kola strengthens the collagen lining of vein walls, enhances circulation, and reduces inflammation in varicose veins.
Ninety-four patients suffering from venous insufficiency of the lower limbs participated in a multicenter, double-blind versus placebo study. After randomization, they were allotted for a treatment period of two months to one of three groups: TECA 120 mg/day, TECA 60 mg/day, or placebo. A significant difference (p less than 0.05) in favor of TECA was shown for the symptoms of heaviness in the lower limbs and edema, as well as for the overall evaluation by the patient. The venous distensibility measured by a mercury strain gauge plethysmograph at three occlusion pressures was improved for the TECA groups but aggravated for the placebo group. The results showed a significant dose-related improvement in the treated groups. (16)
Since antioxidants have been reported to play a significant role in the wound healing process the scientists studied the effect of asiaticoside on the levels of certain antioxidants in the wound so as to explore the possible involvement of such a mechanism in the asiaticoside induced wound healing. Asiaticoside application (0.2%, topical) twice daily for 7 days to excision-type cutaneous wounds in rats led to increased enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, namely superoxide dismutase (35%), catalase (67%), glutathione peroxidase (49%), vitamin E (77%) and ascorbic acid (36%) in newly formed tissues. It also resulted in a several fold decrease in lipid peroxide levels (69%) as measured in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. However, continued application for 14 days showed no significant difference in these antioxidants compared with their values in vehicle treated wound tissue. It appears from the present study that asiaticosides enhanced induction of antioxidant levels at an initial stage of healing which may be an important contributory factor in the healing properties of this substance. (17)
Triterpenoids have been shown to aid in wound healing, prevent scar formation. One preliminary trial in humans found that gotu kola extract improved infectious wound healing. (18)
Oral treatment with 50 mg X kg(-1) day(-1) of crude methanol extract of Centella asiatica for 14 days significantly increased the anti-oxidant enzymes, like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), and anti-oxidants like glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid decreased in lymphoma-bearing mice. (19)
Gotu kola has been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine to treat anxiety. In the clinical trial, scientists gave 40 healthy adults either a very high onetime dose of 12 g of gotu kola or a placebo. Then they measured the subjects' startle responses with loud bursts of noise. After 60 minutes, the gotu kola group displayed less than half the startle response of the control
Preliminary studies showed Gotu kola ability to boost memory, overcome stress and tiredness.
Two Indian studies reported that it helped improve intelligence, general mental abilities, and behavior in mentally retarded children.
Interesting results were shown in animal study. Rats that ate gotu kola every day for 14 days had three to 60 times better retention of learned behaviors than rats that took a placebo.